Foundations:All the civil Engineering structures, ultimately rest on the soil. They transfer their whole load to the soil, so we have to construct the foundations to retain these structures. In case of the hard soil/ having sufficient strength we can provide the shallow foundations.
If we know the strength of the soil then we can decide which type of foundation is to be used. If the soil is weak in strength then we have to provide the deep foundations like pile foundation, well foundation etc. It is important to know the method to calculate the method to know the strength of the soil.
Earthen Dams:There are so many earthen dams constructed to retain the water. The soil to be used for the construction of these earthen dams must be suitable enough to use it in its construction. Various properties of the soil, like it permeability, strength, and density are checked on regular basis to know if the soil compacted to required density or not.
The earthen dams are costly structure and also they have a high risk of getting failed, so they must be constructed with great care, so it is very important to study the properties of the soil.
Embankments:There are embankments constructed to raise the levels of the highways on the plains because there are chances of the floods etc, and also it is required to keep the foundation of the pavement above the water table. The embankments are generally constructed of the soil, which is tested for its various properties. There is need to design a economical embankment which is only possible by studying the various soil properties.
Canals or other retaining and under ground structures:The canals also are formed by the soil which are to be constructed to be impermeable and of enough strength. The retaining structure like the retaining walls, are constructed to retain the earth. The earth properties are important to know about. The properties like the earth pressure, shear strength etc gives us the idea to design the retaining structure.
The soil strata is constantly investigated by the geologist to give the idea of the type of construction to be carried further in case of the tunnelling.